Smoking prevention and cessation programs were implemented and evaluated in recruit training. Four groups of incoming recruits were compared: an education group, a no-smoking group, a health risk appraisal feedback group, and a no-treatment control group. Smoking behavior, perceptions related to smoking, and knowledge about smoking were assessed. Recruits in the education and no-smoking groups were less likely to start smoking for the first time during recruit training than recruits in the control group. The education group had fewer smokers stop smoking than the control group. The 2-year follow-up evaluation needs to be conducted before the long-term effects of these programs on prevention and cessation of smoking can be determined.