Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease, whereas type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction. Previously, the onset of these two separate diseases was easily distinguished, with children being most at risk for T1D and T2D occurring in overweight adults. However, the dramatic rise in obesity, coupled with the notable increase in T1D, has created a large overlap in these previously discrete patient populations. Delayed diagnosis of T1D can result in severe illness or death, and rapid diagnosis of T1D is critical for the efficacy of emerging therapies. However, attempts to apply next-generation platforms have been unsuccessful for detecting diabetes biomarkers. Here we describe the development of a plasmonic gold chip for near-infrared fluorescence-enhanced (NIR-FE) detection of islet cell-targeting autoantibodies. We demonstrate that this platform has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of T1D and can be used to discover previously unknown biomarkers of T1D.