Background and objectives: Vitamin D has been studied primarily for its involvement in calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism. The active form of vitamin D-1,25(OH)2 D-has also been investigated for its immune modulatory properties. We explored associations between serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2 D and periodontal health.
Subjects and methods: This case-control study included 55 subjects with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls). Their serum levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 D, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. Associations between vitamin D and periodontal health status were studied using logistic regression analysis.
Results: A statistically significant association was found between serum 1,25(OH)2 D level and periodontal health status; in that subjects with a low 1,25(OH)2 D were more likely to belong to the periodontitis group (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-1.00). There was practically no association between 25(OH)D level and periodontal health status.
Conclusion: In this case-control study low serum 1,25(OH)2 D level appeared to be associated with periodontitis, which was in line with the previously reported associations between serum 1,25(OH)2 D levels and other inflammatory diseases. Whether this association is causal in nature, remains to be confirmed in future studies.
Keywords: calcifediol; calcitriol; inflammation; periodontitis; serum.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.