Low serum level of 1,25(OH)2 D is associated with chronic periodontitis

J Periodontal Res. 2015 Apr;50(2):274-80. doi: 10.1111/jre.12207. Epub 2014 Jul 7.


Background and objectives: Vitamin D has been studied primarily for its involvement in calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism. The active form of vitamin D-1,25(OH)2 D-has also been investigated for its immune modulatory properties. We explored associations between serum levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2 D and periodontal health.

Subjects and methods: This case-control study included 55 subjects with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 30 periodontally healthy subjects (controls). Their serum levels of 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2 D, ultrasensitive C-reactive protein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were determined. Associations between vitamin D and periodontal health status were studied using logistic regression analysis.

Results: A statistically significant association was found between serum 1,25(OH)2 D level and periodontal health status; in that subjects with a low 1,25(OH)2 D were more likely to belong to the periodontitis group (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.95-1.00). There was practically no association between 25(OH)D level and periodontal health status.

Conclusion: In this case-control study low serum 1,25(OH)2 D level appeared to be associated with periodontitis, which was in line with the previously reported associations between serum 1,25(OH)2 D levels and other inflammatory diseases. Whether this association is causal in nature, remains to be confirmed in future studies.

Keywords: calcifediol; calcitriol; inflammation; periodontitis; serum.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Body Mass Index
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Chronic Periodontitis / blood*
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / blood
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / blood
  • Sex Factors
  • Smoking
  • Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives*
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamins / blood*


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Vitamins
  • Vitamin D
  • 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D