Olfactory reference syndrome: a still open nosological and treatment debate

Gen Hosp Psychiatry. Nov-Dec 2014;36(6):760.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.06.001. Epub 2014 Jun 14.


Objective: The objective was to report a case of olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) with several co-occurring disorders and to discuss ORS differential diagnoses, diagnostic criteria and classification.

Method: Case report.

Results: A 37-year-old married woman presented overvalued ideas of having bad breath since adolescence. She met current diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and major depressive disorder. ORS similarities and differences with some related disorders are discussed.

Conclusion: Further studies regarding symptoms, biomarkers and outcomes are needed to fully disentangle ORS from existing depressive, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.

Keywords: Diagnostic criteria; Differential diagnoses; Nosological classification; Obsessive–compulsive disorder; Olfactory reference syndrome.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Female
  • Halitosis / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder* / classification
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder* / diagnosis
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder* / psychology
  • Olfaction Disorders / classification
  • Olfaction Disorders / diagnosis
  • Olfaction Disorders / psychology