Remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPostC) has been proved to protect the brain from stroke, but the precise mechanism remains not fully understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether RIPostC attenuates cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by abating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. CHOP, a multifunctional transcription factor in ER stress, regulates the expression of genes related to apoptosis, such as Bim and Bcl-2. Male SD rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion, and RIPostC was induced by three cycles of 10 min ischemia and 10 min reperfusion on bilateral femoral arteries immediately after ischemia. CHOP siRNA (CHOPi) and control siRNA (Coni) were injected into the right lateral ventricle 30 min before the beginning of ischemia. RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi application reduced infarct volume, improved the neurological function, and decreased cell apoptosis. RIPostC increased the protein level of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and decreased the protein level of phosphorylated-EIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP. Furthermore, the expression of CHOP, Bim and cleaved-caspase-3 was decreased, while Bcl-2 expression was increased in response to application of RIPostC, CHOPi, or RIPostC + CHOPi. In sum, RIPostC protects against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury in rats by attenuating ER stress response-induced apoptosis.