Introduction: Patients with early-stage lung cancer have a high risk of recurrence despite multimodality therapy. KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinomas are the largest genetically defined subgroup, representing 25% of patients. GI-4000 is a heat-killed recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast-derived vaccine expressing mutant KRAS proteins. The present phase II study assessed the feasibility, immunogenicity, and safety of the GI-4000 vaccine in patients with early-stage, KRAS-mutant lung cancer.
Materials and methods: Patients with stage I-III KRAS-mutant lung cancer who completed curative therapy were enrolled. The patients received the genotype matched GI-4000 vaccine for ≤ 3 years or until intolerance, disease recurrence, or death. The KRAS antigen T-cell response was assessed using the interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The study was powered to detect an immune response in ≥ 25% of patients.
Results: A total of 24 patients were enrolled over 28 months. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. One patient withdrew consent because of pain at the injection site. The study met its primary endpoint, with 50% of patients developing an immune response to mutant KRAS. The median number of vaccinations received was 15 (range, 1-19). Ten patients experienced disease recurrence, and 6 died. Compared with the genotypically matched historical controls, the recurrence rates were equivalent but overall survival showed a favorable trend.
Conclusion: GI-4000 was well tolerated and immunogenic when used as consolidation therapy in patients with stage I-III KRAS-mutant lung cancer. The patterns of recurrence and death observed in the present study can be used to design a randomized study of GI-4000 with overall survival as the primary endpoint.
Keywords: Consolidation; Early-stage; Immunotherapy; Lung cancer.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.