Scope: Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) produce unique prenylflavonoids that exhibit interesting bioactivities. This study investigates the interactions between selected prenylflavonoids and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an efflux transporter important for xenobiotic bioavailability and multidrug resistance (MDR).
Methods and results: ABCG2-inhibitory activity of xanthohumol (XN), isoxanthohumol (IX), 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), and 6,8-diprenylnarigenin (6,8-diPN) was evaluated using mitoxantrone accumulation and vesicular transport assays. XN, IX, and 8-PN were tested for a substrate-type relationship with ABCG2 using ATPase and bidirectional transport assays. The prenylflavonoids exhibited significant ABCG2-inhibitory activities in mitoxantrone accumulation and vesicular transport assays. In the ATPase assay, XN, IX, and 8-PN inhibited baseline and sulfasalazine-stimulated ATPase activities with IC50 of 2.16-27.0 μM. IX and 8-PNalso displayed bell-shaped activation curves in Ko143-suppressed membranes, indicating a substrate-type relationship. For IX, efflux ratios of 1.25 ± 0.21 and 9.18 ± 0.56 were observed in wild type and ABCG2-overexpressing MDCKII cell monolayers, respectively. The latter was reduced to 1.25 ± 0.15 in the presence of the ABCG2-specific inhibitor Ko143, demonstrating an ABCG2-mediated efflux of IX. Additionally, evidence was shown for the involvement of ABCG2 in the efflux of 8-PN and/or its sulfate conjugate.
Conclusion: Prenylflavonoids are potent inhibitors of ABCG2 and therefore implicated in ABCG2-mediated food/herb-drug interactions and MDR. ABCG2-mediated efflux of prenylflavonoids may represent one mechanism that regulates prenylflavonoid bioavailability.
Keywords: ABC transporter; ABCG2; Bioavailability; Herb-drug interaction; Multidrug resistance; Prenylflavonoid.
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