Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Salmonella and Shigella, requires surveillance worldwide. This study describes results of surveys in Hong Kong, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur. All strains were isolated in hospitals which have large community catchment areas in addition to specialised hospital units. The prevalence of resistant strains was high in all areas. Gram-negative bacteria such as Enterobacter associated with hospital infections were resistant to penicillins and cephalosporins, with gentamicin resistance ranging from about 20% in Kuala Lumpur and Hong Kong, to 35% in Bangkok. Ninety-seven percent of Shigella isolated in Thailand were resistant to ampicillin. About 10% of Salmonella were resistant to chloramphenicol in all three centres.