This study aimed to investigate the association between POU class5 homeobox 1 pseudogene 1 gene (POU5F1P1) rs10505477 polymorphism and the prognosis of Chinese gastric cancer patients, who received cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgical resection. POU5F1P1 rs10505477 was genotyped using the SNaPshot method in 944 gastric cancer patients who received gastrectomy. The association of rs10505477 G>A polymorphism with the progression and prognosis in gastric cancer patients was statistically analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0 for Windows. The results reveal that rs10505477 polymorphism has a negatively effect on the overall survival of gastric cancer patients in cisplatin-based chemotherapy subgroup (HR=1.764, 95% CI=1.069-2.911, p=0.023). Our preliminary study indicates for the first time that POU5F1P1 rs10505477 is correlated with survival of gastric cancer patients who receving cisplatin-based chemotherapy after gastrectomy. Further studies are warranted to investigate the mechanism and to verify our results in different populations.