A fast deposition-crystallization procedure for highly efficient lead iodide perovskite thin-film solar cells

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2014 Sep 8;53(37):9898-903. doi: 10.1002/anie.201405334. Epub 2014 Jul 22.


Thin-film photovoltaics based on alkylammonium lead iodide perovskite light absorbers have recently emerged as a promising low-cost solar energy harvesting technology. To date, the perovskite layer in these efficient solar cells has generally been fabricated by either vapor deposition or a two-step sequential deposition process. We report that flat, uniform thin films of this material can be deposited by a one-step, solvent-induced, fast crystallization method involving spin-coating of a DMF solution of CH3NH3PbI3 followed immediately by exposure to chlorobenzene to induce crystallization. Analysis of the devices and films revealed that the perovskite films consist of large crystalline grains with sizes up to microns. Planar heterojunction solar cells constructed with these solution-processed thin films yielded an average power conversion efficiency of 13.9±0.7% and a steady state efficiency of 13% under standard AM 1.5 conditions.

Keywords: crystallization; light harvesting; perovskite solar cells; photovoltaics; thin films.