Objective: To gather evidence about the outcomes of structured neuromuscular warm-up programs without additional equipment, as prevention of non-contact injuries in young professional soccer players.
Material and methods: A literature search was conducted during March and April 2013 (PubMed, Cochrane Library, The American Journal of Sports Medicine, The British Journal of Sports Medicine and the search engine Trip Database).
Results: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 6 studies were obtained (3 clinical trials, one cohort study and 2 systematic reviews). "FIFA 11+" program showed a reduction of injuries of between 33% and 57%. These included 52% in knee, 22% in ankle, 40% in medial tibial stress syndrome, 50% in posterior thigh, and 21% in the anterior, and 12% in the groin area. "FIFA 11" program showed a 58% reduction in ankle sprains and 27% in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Other specific programs to prevent ACL injuries reduced them by 74% and "Knäkontroll, SISU Idrottsböcker©" by 64%. "HarmoKnee" program reduced knee injuries by 78%.
Discussion: Several methodological weaknesses were observed, but it seems that there is a trend toward a warm-up that contains basic stretching, strengthening and balance exercises, which performed for more than three months and regularly, could prevent injuries.
Conclusions: "FIFA 11 +" program might be a good preventive measure of injuries by implementing its program of structured warm- up. In any event new, better designed, studies are needed to assess this evidence.
Keywords: Calentamiento; Football; Fútbol; Injuries; Joven; Lesiones; Prevención; Prevention; Warm-up; Young.
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