Evaluation of the effect of expansion and shear stress on a self-assembled endothelium mimicking nanomatrix coating for drug eluting stents in vitro and in vivo

Biofabrication. 2014 Sep;6(3):035019. doi: 10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035019. Epub 2014 Jul 22.


Coating stability is increasingly recognized as a concern impacting the long-term effectiveness of drug eluting stents (DES). In particular, unstable coatings have been brought into focus by a recently published report (Denardo et al 2012 J. Am. Med. Assoc. 307 2148-50). Towards the goal of overcoming current challenges of DES performance, we have developed an endothelium mimicking nanomatrix coating composed of peptide amphiphiles that promote endothelialization, but limit smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelet adhesion. Here, we report a novel water evaporation based method to uniformly coat the endothelium mimicking nanomatrix onto stents using a rotational coating technique, thereby eliminating residual chemicals and organic solvents, and allowing easy application to even bioabsorbable stents. Furthermore, the stability of the endothelium mimicking nanomatrix was analyzed after force experienced during expansion and shear stress under simulated physiological conditions. Results demonstrate uniformity and structural integrity of the nanomatrix coating. Preliminary animal studies in a rabbit model showed no flaking or peeling, and limited neointimal formation or restenosis. Therefore, it has the potential to improve the clinical performance of DES by providing multifunctional endothelium mimicking characteristics with structural integrity on stent surfaces.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry*
  • Drug Delivery Systems / instrumentation
  • Drug Delivery Systems / methods*
  • Drug-Eluting Stents / standards*
  • Endothelial Cells / cytology*
  • Endothelium / cytology
  • Humans
  • Iliac Artery / surgery
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Male
  • Rabbits
  • Shear Strength


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible