Over the past few years, massively parallel sequencing technologies have revealed with high resolution the tremendous genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We have learned how the molecular architecture differs not only between affected individuals but also within samples and over time. These insights have catalyzed our understanding of the pathobiology of CLL and point to critical signaling pathways in the development and progression of the disease. Several key driver alterations have been identified, which serve to refine prognostic schemata but also to inspire the development of new therapeutic strategies. Ongoing advances in technology promise to further elucidate the molecular basis of CLL, and this knowledge is anticipated to aid us in understanding and addressing the clinical challenge presented by the vast variability in the clinical course of patients with CLL.
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