Aim: The term kyphosis is used to describe the spinal curve that results in an abnormally rounded back. Kyphosis may develop due to trauma, developmental anomalies, degenerative disc disease, inflammatory diseases, and infectious diseases and also iatrogenic. The aim of this paper is to review the etiopathognesis and the treatment management of kyphosis.
Methods: A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using key word 'kyphosis' and was made. For the literature review, papers concerning etiopathogenesis, classification and treatment were selected among these papers.
Results: A search in the National Library of Medicine (Pubmed) database using key word 'kyphosis' yielded 7506 papers published between 1916 and 2013. The main papers about kyphosis were congenital, Scheuermann, tumour related, neuromuscular, posttraumatic, infectionrelated, iatrogenic kyphosis.
Conclusions: Every patient with kyphosis should be treated based on her/his current state and needs. It should always be remembered that the patients with negative sagittal balance can compensate it with the hip flexion but it is far more difficult to compensate the positive sagittal balance. The main goal of surgery to treat the kyphotic patients is to correct the sagittal curve and also restore a spinal balance within an acceptable range above the hips and knees.