Preliminary experience with squid: a new liquid embolizing agent for AVM, AV fistulas and tumors

Turk Neurosurg. 2014;24(4):565-70. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.11179-14.0.


Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyze our experience with a new liquid embolic agent, Squid, for the treatment of cerebral vascular lesions.

Material and methods: We present 28 patients who were treated with two formulations of Squid (Squid 18 and Squid 12). The lesions included 16 arteriovenous malformation (AVM)s (Spetzler-Martin grade 2 in 8, 3 in 6 and 4 in 2), 9 arteriovenous (AV) fistulas, 2 tumors (glomus tumor and angiofibroma) and 1 AICA aneurysm. Of the 9 patients presenting with hemorrhage, 6 were AVM, 2 were AVF and 1 was aneurysm.

Results: The total obliteration rate of the AVMs was 37.5%. Fistulas were closed completely after combined treatment with surgery in 6 out of 9 patients, and one was sent to radiotherapy. There was no mortality. Two reported hemorrhages and thromboembolic complications resulted in permanent deficits in 3 patients. Pathologic examination revealed mild inflammatory reaction with infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in 5 patients in whom surgery was performed immediately after embolization. Technical problems such as rupture, inability to remove or premature occlusion of the microcatheter related to the embolic agent were not recorded.

Conclusion: Squid is a safe and effective embolic agent for treatment of cerebral AVMs, AV fistulas, tumors and aneurysms with satisfactory obliteration rate.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Angiofibroma / surgery
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / pathology
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / therapy*
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Brain Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic / methods*
  • Female
  • Glomus Tumor / surgery
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / pathology
  • Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations / therapy*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polyvinyls / therapeutic use*
  • Young Adult


  • Polyvinyls
  • ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer