Repeated intravenous injections in non-human primates demonstrate preclinical safety of an anti-inflammatory phosphorus-based dendrimer

Nanotoxicology. 2015 May;9(4):433-41. doi: 10.3109/17435390.2014.940406. Epub 2014 Jul 22.


Dendrimers are nanosized hyperbranched polymers synthesized through an iterative step-by-step process; their size and structure are perfectly controlled, and they are widely used for biomedical purposes. Previously, we showed that a phosphorous-based dendrimer capped with anionic AzaBisPhosphonate groups (so-called ABP dendrimer) has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties toward the human immune system. It dramatically inhibits the onset and development of experimental arthritis in a mouse model relevant for human rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic inflammatory disease of auto-immune origin. In this article, we demonstrate in an unprecedented study that cynomolgus macaques repeatedly injected with the ABP dendrimer displayed no adverse response. Indeed, biochemical, haematological, clotting and immunological parameters remained with a normal physiological range during the study. Moreover, quantification of serum cytokines and histopathological analyses failed to reveal any noticeable lesion or noteworthy non-physiological occurrence. These results strengthen the potential of the ABP dendrimer as an innovative drug-candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and favor the regulatory preclinical development of the molecule.

Keywords: Nanomedicine; nanotoxicology; non-human primates; phosphorus-based dendrimers; systemic administration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / toxicity
  • Dendrimers / administration & dosage*
  • Dendrimers / chemistry
  • Dendrimers / toxicity
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Phosphorus / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Dendrimers
  • Phosphorus