The sodium pumping NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na⁺-NQR), a unique redox-driven ion pump

J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2014 Aug;46(4):289-98. doi: 10.1007/s10863-014-9565-9. Epub 2014 Jul 23.


The Na(+)-translocating NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (Na(+)-NQR) is a unique Na(+) pumping respiratory complex found only in prokaryotes, that plays a key role in the metabolism of marine and pathogenic bacteria, including Vibrio cholerae and other human pathogens. Na(+)-NQR is the main entrance for reducing equivalents into the respiratory chain of these bacteria, catalyzing the oxidation of NADH and the reduction of quinone, the free energy of this redox reaction drives the selective translocation of Na(+) across the cell membrane, which energizes key cellular processes. In this review we summarize the unique properties of Na(+)-NQR in terms of its redox cofactor composition, electron transfer reactions and a possible mechanism of coupling and pumping.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology*
  • Humans
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / metabolism*
  • NADP / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / metabolism*
  • Vibrio cholerae / enzymology*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • NADP
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase