We report the toxicological and pharmacokinetic properties of the synthetic, small interfering RNA (siRNA), QPI-1007, following intravitreal administration. QPI-1007 is a chemically modified siRNA designed to act via the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to temporarily inhibit expression of the caspase 2 protein and is being developed as a neuroprotectant for the treatment of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and other optic neuropathies such as glaucoma that result in the death of retinal ganglion cells. The half-life of QPI-1007 in the vitreous and retina/choroid in the Dutch Belted rabbit was about 2 days, and there was no sign of accumulation after repeated administrations at either 2- or 4-week dosing intervals in the rabbit. QPI-1007 was well tolerated in Dutch Belted rabbits following single or repeated intravitreal administrations of up to 11 doses over 9 months. Test-article-related effects were limited to the eyes, with minimal to mild vitreal cellular infiltration being the major finding, which was reversible. In repeated-dose studies, a modest reduction in B-wave amplitude obtained by electroretinography was observed in animals treated with the highest dose level tested (3 mg, which is equivalent to a 12 mg/eye human dose) that was not considered to be clinically meaningful. Administration in the rat of either a single bolus intravenous (i.v.) injection of 100 mg/kg or daily bolus i.v. injections of 75 mg/kg/day for 28 days failed to elicit any macroscopic or microscopic changes, suggesting a low risk for systemic toxicity. QPI-1007 was negative in three genetic toxicity studies. Overall, the nonclinical studies support the further development of QPI-1007.