Objective: This literature review details the history, pharmacokinetics, and utility of (18)F-sodium fluoride (Na(18)F) PET/CT in detecting osseous metastases compared with the current standard of care, technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy. Additional discussion highlights solutions to impediments for broader implementation of this modality and insight into the complementary roles of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and Na(18)F PET/CT in oncology imaging, including preliminary data for combined Na(18)F and FDG PET/CT.
Conclusion: Na(18)F PET/CT is the most comprehensive imaging modality for the evaluation of osseous metastatic disease. Although further data acquisition is necessary to expand cost-benefit analyses of this imaging agent, emerging data reinforce its diagnostic advantage, suggest methods to mitigate impediments to broader utilization of Na(18)F PET/CT, and introduce a potentially viable technique for single-session combined Na(18)F and FDG PET/CT staging of soft-tissue and osseous disease.
Keywords: PET; bone metastasis; cancer staging; oncology; sodium fluoride.