Objective: (1) Determine the relationship between dietary flavonoid-rich fruit and vegetable consumption on diabetes-related biomarkers (e.g., HgbA1c) and diabetic retinopathy.
Methods: Data from 381 participants with diabetes from the NHANES 2003-2006 were analyzed. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP), HgbA1C, and fasting glucose and insulin. Diabetic retinopathy was assessed from a retinal imaging exam. A high-flavonoid fruit and vegetable consumption (HFVC) index variable was created from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).
Results: After adjustments, greater HFVC was associated (p<0.05) with lower levels of CRP (β=-0.005), HgbA1C (β=-0.005) and glucose (β=-0.59), with greater HFVC reducing the odds of having diabetic retinopathy by 30%.
Conclusion: Adults with diabetes consuming more flavonoid-rich fruits and vegetables had lower degrees of inflammation, better glycemic control, and reduced odds of diabetic retinopathy.
Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy; Flavonoid; Fruit and vegetable consumption; Glycemic control; Inflammation.
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