Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin

Sci Rep. 2014 Jul 24;4:5807. doi: 10.1038/srep05807.


Most viruses in human skin are known to be human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Previous sequencing of skin samples has identified 273 different cutaneous HPV types, including 47 previously unknown types. In the present study, we wished to extend prior studies using deeper sequencing. This deeper sequencing without prior PCR of a pool of 142 whole genome amplified skin lesions identified 23 known HPV types, 3 novel putative HPV types and 4 non-HPV viruses. The complete sequence was obtained for one of the known putative types and almost the complete sequence was obtained for one of the novel putative types. In addition, sequencing of amplimers from HPV consensus PCR of 326 skin lesions detected 385 different HPV types, including 226 previously unknown putative types. In conclusion, metagenomic deep sequencing of human skin samples identified no less than 396 different HPV types in human skin, out of which 229 putative HPV types were previously unknown.

MeSH terms

  • Alphapapillomavirus / genetics*
  • Bayes Theorem
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology
  • DNA, Viral / genetics
  • Genetic Variation
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Keratoacanthoma / virology
  • Keratosis, Actinic / virology
  • Metagenome
  • Phylogeny
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Skin / virology*
  • Skin Neoplasms / virology


  • DNA, Viral