Non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), the most common lung cancers, are known to have diverse pathological features. During the past decade, in-depth analyses of lung cancer genomes and signalling pathways have further defined NSCLCs as a group of distinct diseases with genetic and cellular heterogeneity. Consequently, an impressive list of potential therapeutic targets was unveiled, drastically altering the clinical evaluation and treatment of patients. Many targeted therapies have been developed with compelling clinical proofs of concept; however, treatment responses are typically short-lived. Further studies of the tumour microenvironment have uncovered new possible avenues to control this deadly disease, including immunotherapy.