Release of agronomical nutrient from zeolitite substrate containing phosphatic waste

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Dec;21(23):13237-42. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-3334-5. Epub 2014 Jul 25.


The principal plant nutrients are phosphorous, nitrogen and potassium. Among these compounds, phosphorous is the most critical: it reacts rapidly, becoming an insoluble compound. The combination of zeolitites with phosphate materials (zeoponic substrate) agrees to a gradual and controlled phosphorous release in soils: phosphorous for plant uptake is released by the combination of dissolution and ion-exchange reactions. Animal bone ashes, rich in phosphorous and leached alone, release little amounts of soluble phosphorous and a great deal of alkaline sodium and potassium. Concerning chabazitic-zeolitite, it encourages a both gradual and growing soluble phosphorous release from animal bone ashes, in accordance with clinoptilolitic- and phillipsitic-zeolitite abilities; in particular, that release increases, thanks to both a higher zeolitite/bone ash ratio and ammonium enrichment of zeolitite. The use of zeolitite is environmentally sustainable in Italy because large amounts of deposits of zeolitite were present in Italy.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apatites / chemistry
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Italy
  • Minerals / chemistry
  • Nitrogen / analysis
  • Phosphorus / analysis*
  • Plant Development*
  • Potassium / analysis
  • Soil / chemistry*
  • Solubility
  • Waste Products*
  • Zeolites / chemistry*


  • Apatites
  • Minerals
  • Soil
  • Waste Products
  • Zeolites
  • Phosphorus
  • bone ash
  • Nitrogen
  • Potassium