Effects of arecoline on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity and oxidative stress

J Toxicol Sci. 2014 Aug;39(4):609-14. doi: 10.2131/jts.39.609.


Betel-quid use is associated with the risk of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of arecoline on human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in vitro and rat hepatic CYP enzymes, as well as the hepatic oxidative stress and liver injury of rats in vivo. The in vitro results indicated that arecoline hydrobromide (AH) has no significant effect on the activities of CYP2B, 2C9, 3A4, 1A2, 2E1 and 2D6 in human liver microsome (HLM). However, oral administration of AH at 4 and 20 mg/kg/d for seven consecutive days significantly increased the activities of rat hepatic CYP2B, 2E1, 2D, 3A, 2C and 1A2. In addition, AH at 100 mg/kg/d significantly increased the levels of ALT, AST and MDA, decreased the levels of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and GSH, in rat liver. The in vivo induction of AH on rat hepatic CYP isoforms suggested that the high risk of metabolic interaction should be existed when the substrate drugs of the six kinds of CYP isoforms was administered in betel-quid use human. Furthermore, the in vivo results also suggested that AH-induced hepatoxicity should be associated with the induction of AH on rat hepatic CYP2E1 and 2B.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Animals
  • Arecoline / administration & dosage
  • Arecoline / toxicity*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Microsomes, Liver / enzymology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Arecoline
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System