To evaluate the efficacy of PSK for adjuvant immuno-chemotherapy in patients who had undergone radical gastrectomy, a randomized controlled trial has been in progress in collaboration with 46 institutions in the Chubu district of Japan. A total of 262 patients were registered for this trial during the two years from July 1985 to June 1987 with a centralized registration system, and were allocated into the 5-FU+PSK group (Group P) and 5-FU alone group (Group C) by the minimization method following the random permuted blocks method. Between the two groups, the parameters of sex, age, serosal invasion (S), lymph-node metastasis (N), and the combination of S . N factor levels were distributed without significant differences. An induction treatment with MMC 6 mg/m2 was given to all patients following curative gastrectomy and on the 7th post-operative day. Two weeks after surgery, Group P received alternately PSK 3 g/day for 4 week and 5-FU 150 mg/day for 4 weeks as one course, and 10 courses were given. Group C received 5-FU alone for 4 weeks using alternate rest interval for 4 weeks. Since both experimental and clinical studies suggested that alternate treatments using PSK and anticancer agents were effective, treatment in this trial alternated PSK and 5-FU. A final follow-up study will be completed in June 1992, when all patients shall have survived more than 5 years after surgery. The administration of 5-FU was completed by January. 1989, but PSK has been administered to group P. The period from 18 to 42 months after surgery was reached in all eligible patients (253) at the end of December 1988. The disease-free survival curves and overall survival curves of group P were significantly (p = 0.018 and p = 0.045,) better than those of group C.