Management of chronic Giardia infection

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014 Sep;12(9):1143-57. doi: 10.1586/14787210.2014.942283. Epub 2014 Jul 25.


Advances in our understanding of chronic giardiasis (CG) may improve our care of patients in this stage of the disease. This review proposes a new concept of CG and highlights the recent advances in our understanding and management of this condition. According to this review, management requires, initially, an accurate diagnosis, which may exclude several conditions that can mimic CG. Optimal treatment requires a tailored approach which includes the recognition of the known modifiable causes of this health condition, assessment of symptoms and potential complications, their treatment utilizing, if necessary, a multidisciplinary team, and an ongoing monitoring for the effect of therapy - weighing the efficacy of individual drugs - all of these together may lead to a successful treatment of CG.

Keywords: 5-nitroimidazoles; Giardia; albendazole; chronic giardiasis; nitazoxanide; quinacrine; resistance; tinidazole; treatment failure.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiprotozoal Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Chronic Disease
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Giardia / drug effects*
  • Giardiasis / drug therapy*
  • Giardiasis / epidemiology
  • Giardiasis / immunology
  • Giardiasis / parasitology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Risk Factors


  • Antiprotozoal Agents
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G