(Cyclopentadienyl)(cyclooctadiene) ruthenium(II) chloride [CpRuCl(cod)] catalyzes the reaction between nitrile oxides and electronically deficient 1-choro-, 1-bromo-, and 1-iodoalkynes leading to 4-haloisoxazoles. Organic azides are also suitable 1,3-dipoles, resulting in 5-halo-1,2,3-triazoles. These air-tolerant reactions can be performed at room temperature with 1.25 equivalents of the respective 1,3-dipole relative to the alkyne component. Reactive 1-haloalkynes include propiolic amides, esters, ketones, and phosphonates. Post-functionalization of the halogenated azole products can be accomplished by using palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions and by manipulation of reactive amide groups. The lack of catalysis observed with [Cp*RuCl(cod)] (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) is attributed to steric demands of the Cp* (η(5)-C5Me5) ligand in comparison to the parent Cp (η(5)-C5H5). This hypothesis is supported by the poor reactivity of [(η(5)-C5Me4CF3)RuCl(cod)], which serves as a an isosteric mimic of Cp* and as an isoelectronic analogue of Cp.
Keywords: alkynes; cycloadditions; halides; regioselectivity; ruthenium.
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