Bonding to oxide ceramics—laboratory testing versus clinical outcome

Dent Mater. 2015 Jan;31(1):8-14. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2014 Jul 21.


Objectives: Despite a huge number of published laboratory bonding studies on dental oxide ceramics clinical long-term studies on resin bonded oxide ceramic restorations are rare. The purpose of this review is to present the best available clinical evidence for successful bonding of dental oxide ceramic restorations.

Methods: Clinical trials with resin-bonded restorations that had no or only limited mechanical retention and were made from alumina or zirconia ceramic were identified using an electronic search in PubMed database. Overall 10 publications with clinical trials could be identified. Their clinical outcome was compared with that laboratory bond strength studies.

Results: Clinical data provide strong evidence that air-abrasion at a moderate pressure in combination with using phosphate monomer containing primers and/or luting resins provide long-term durable bonding to glass-infiltrated alumina and zirconia ceramic under the humid and stressful oral conditions.

Significance: As simple and clinically reliable bonding methods to oxide ceramics exist, the rationale for development of alternative bonding methods might be reconsidered especially when these methods are more time consuming or require rather complicated and/or technique sensitive procedures.

Keywords: Adhesion; Air-abrasion; Alumina ceramic; Clinical trials; Inlay-retained fixed dental prostheses; Oxide ceramic; Resin bonding; Resin-bonded fixed dental prostheses; Review; Zirconia ceramic.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air Abrasion, Dental
  • Aluminum Oxide / chemistry*
  • Ceramics / chemistry*
  • Dental Bonding / methods*
  • Dental Cements / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Phosphates / chemistry
  • Resin Cements / chemistry*
  • Zirconium / chemistry*


  • Dental Cements
  • Phosphates
  • Resin Cements
  • Zirconium
  • Aluminum Oxide
  • zirconium oxide