Goal-directed therapy after cardiac surgery and the incidence of acute kidney injury

J Crit Care. 2014 Dec;29(6):997-1000. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jun 23.


Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of goal-directed therapy (GDT), after cardiac surgery, on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Design: This is a prospective observational study designed to achieve and maintain maximum stroke volume for 8 hours, in patients after cardiac surgery.

Setting: This is a single-center study in a 15-bedded cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU).

Participants: Participants are patients after coronary artery bypass grafting and/or aortic valve surgery.

Interventions: Patients in the GDT group received cardiac output monitoring and fluid challenges targeting an increase in stroke volume by at least 10%. Stroke volume maximization was maintained for a period of 8 hours from admission to the ICU. All other aspects of care were dictated by the clinical team. Patients in the standard therapy (ST) group had intravenous fluids in accordance with the routine practice of the unit. Patients were divided into the GDT and ST group dependant on availability of cardiac output monitors and allocation of nursing staff with training in GDT. Patients' data were collected prospectively in both groups.

Measurements and main results: One hundred twenty-three patients received GDT compared with 141 patients in the ST group. Both groups received similar volumes of fluid (GDT, 2905 [1367] mL vs 2704 [1393] mL; P=.09). Incidence of AKI was reduced in the GDT group (n=8 [6.5%] vs n=28 [19.9%]; P=.002). The median duration of hospital stay was 6 (4) days in the GDT group vs 7 (8) days in the ST, P=.004.

Conclusion: Postoperative GDT in patients after cardiac surgery was associated with reduction in the incidence of AKI and a reduction in ICU and hospital duration of stay.

Keywords: Acute kidney injury; Cardiac surgery; Goal-directed therapy.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / epidemiology*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology
  • Acute Kidney Injury / prevention & control
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Algorithms
  • Aortic Valve / surgery*
  • Cardiac Output
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Coronary Artery Bypass* / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Fluid Therapy / methods*
  • Fluid Therapy / nursing
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Prospective Studies
  • Stroke Volume / physiology*