Glucosinolate profile and distribution among plant tissues and phenological stages of field-grown horseradish

Phytochemistry. 2014 Oct;106:178-187. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2014.06.019. Epub 2014 Jul 21.


Profile and distribution of glucosinolates (GLS) were detected in plant tissues of horseradish at different developmental stages: beginning of vegetative re-growth, flowering and silique formation. The GLS profile varied widely in the different tissues: we identified 17 GLS in roots and sprouts, one of which was not previously characterized in horseradish, i.e. the 2(S)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (glucobarbarin) and/or 2(R)-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl-GLS (epiglucobarbarin), 11 already found in the roots, including the putative 2-methylsulfonyl-oxo-ethyl-GLS, and 5 previously recognized only in the sprouts. Fifteen of those GLS were also identified in young and cauline leaves, 12 in the mature leaves and 13 in the inflorescences. No difference in GLS profile was observed in plant among the phenological stages. Differences in concentrations of GLS, quantified as desulfated, were found in plant. At the beginning of vegetative re-growth, sprouts while showing the same profile of the roots were much richer in GLS having the highest total GLS concentrations (117.5 and 7.7μmolg(-1) dry weight in sprouts and roots, respectively). During flowering and silique forming stages, the roots still maintained lower amount of total GLS (7.4μmolg(-1) of dry weight, on average) with respect to the epigeous tissues, in which mature and young leaves showed the highest total concentrations (70.5 and 73.8μmolg(-1) of dry weight on average, respectively). Regardless of the phenological stages, the aliphatic GLS were always predominant in all tissues (95%) followed by indolic (2.6%) and benzenic (2.4%) GLS. Sinigrin contributed more than 90% of the total GLS concentration. Aliphatic GLS concentrations were much higher in the epigeous tissues, particularly in the mature and young leaves, while benzenic and indolic GLS concentrations were higher in the roots. Through the phenological stages, GLS concentration increased in young and mature leaves and decreased in cauline leaves and inflorescences, while it remained constant over time in roots.

Keywords: Armoracia rusticana; Brassicaceae; GLS; IRMPD; LC–ESI–FTICR MS; Secondary metabolites.

MeSH terms

  • Armoracia / chemistry*
  • Flowers / chemistry*
  • Glucosinolates / chemistry*
  • Glucosinolates / isolation & purification
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry*
  • Plant Roots / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization


  • Glucosinolates
  • sinigrin