Insights into morphology and disease from the dog genome project

Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2014;30:535-60. doi: 10.1146/annurev-cellbio-100913-012927. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Abstract

Although most modern dog breeds are less than 200 years old, the symbiosis between man and dog is ancient. Since prehistoric times, repeated selection events have transformed the wolf into man's guardians, laborers, athletes, and companions. The rapid transformation from pack predator to loyal companion is a feat that is arguably unique among domesticated animals. How this transformation came to pass remained a biological mystery until recently: Within the past decade, the deployment of genomic approaches to study population structure, detect signatures of selection, and identify genetic variants that underlie canine phenotypes is ushering into focus novel biological mechanisms that make dogs remarkable. Ironically, the very practices responsible for breed formation also spurned morbidity; today, many diseases are correlated with breed identity. In this review, we discuss man's best friend in the context of a genetic model to understand paradigms of heritable phenotypes, both desirable and disadvantageous.

Keywords: body size; breed standard; disease; genomics; morphology; skull.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Size / genetics
  • Bone Neoplasms / genetics
  • Bone Neoplasms / veterinary
  • Breeding
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dog Diseases / genetics
  • Dogs / anatomy & histology
  • Dogs / classification
  • Dogs / genetics*
  • Extremities / anatomy & histology
  • Genome*
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Glycoproteins / physiology
  • HMGA2 Protein / genetics
  • HMGA2 Protein / physiology
  • Hair / anatomy & histology
  • Heart Diseases / genetics
  • Heart Diseases / veterinary
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / physiology
  • Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics
  • Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / veterinary
  • Osteosarcoma / genetics
  • Osteosarcoma / veterinary
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Quantitative Trait Loci
  • Selection, Genetic
  • Skin / anatomy & histology
  • Skull / anatomy & histology
  • Smad2 Protein / genetics
  • Smad2 Protein / physiology
  • Species Specificity
  • Tail / anatomy & histology

Substances

  • Glycoproteins
  • HMGA2 Protein
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Smad2 Protein
  • teleocalcin