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Review
, 74 (12), 1411-33

Fingolimod: A Review of Its Use in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

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Review

Fingolimod: A Review of Its Use in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Mark Sanford. Drugs.

Abstract

Fingolimod (Gilenya(®)) is an orally administered disease modifying agent (DMA) for use in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). In placebo-controlled trials in patients with RRMS with active disease, fingolimod 0.5 mg/day significantly reduced the annualized relapse rate (ARR) by approximately one-half over 2-year trial periods. It also significantly increased the proportion of patients with no disability progression, reduced deterioration from baseline in the Extended Disability Status Scale score and reduced MRI markers of disease progression (new/newly enlarging brain lesions and percentage change in brain volume). In a 12-month, comparison with intramuscular interferon β-1a (IFNβ- 1a) 30 μg/week, the ARR in fingolimod 0.5 mg/day recipients was significantly lower than in IFNβ-1a recipients by one-half; fingolimod recipients also had significantly lower MRI markers of disease progression. In extensions to the pivotal clinical trials, fingolimod exposure for up to 4 years was associated with low relapse rates and continuing benefits in terms of disability and disease progression. In clinical trials, adverse events in fingolimod recipients were generally mild to moderate in severity. In the pivotal placebo-controlled trial, serious adverse events occurred in similar proportions of fingolimod 0.5 mg/day and placebo recipients. First-dose bradycardia and atrioventricular block, which are generally asymptomatic, were clinically important adverse events associated with fingolimod in placebo-controlled trials. The risk for serious cardiovascular adverse events at the approved fingolimod dosage appears to be low in patients without pre-existing cardiac conditions. Fingolimod is an efficacious therapy for RRMS that reduces relapses, disability progression, new brain lesions and loss of brain volume. It has an acceptable tolerability profile and provides a useful alternative treatment in patients with RRMS who have responded poorly to other DMAs.

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