Salmonella chronic carriage: epidemiology, diagnosis, and gallbladder persistence

Trends Microbiol. 2014 Nov;22(11):648-55. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.06.007. Epub 2014 Jul 22.


Typhoid (enteric fever) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing over 21 million new infections annually, with the majority of deaths occurring in young children. Because typhoid fever-causing Salmonella have no known environmental reservoir, the chronic, asymptomatic carrier state is thought to be a key feature of continued maintenance of the bacterium within human populations. Despite the importance of this disease to public health, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that catalyze carriage, as well as our ability to reliably identify and treat the Salmonella carrier state, have only recently begun to advance.

Keywords: Salmonella; chronic carrier; diagnostics; epidemiology; typhoid fever.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carrier State / microbiology*
  • Gallbladder / microbiology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Humans
  • Paratyphoid Fever / microbiology
  • Salmonella paratyphi A / growth & development*
  • Salmonella typhi / growth & development*
  • Typhoid Fever / microbiology