Use of healthcare resources and costs of acute cardioembolic stroke management in the Region of Madrid: The CODICE Study

Neurologia. Nov-Dec 2015;30(9):536-44. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2014.06.002. Epub 2014 Jul 25.
[Article in English, Spanish]


Introduction: Stroke is the main cause of admission to Neurology departments and cardioembolic stroke (CS) is one of the most common subtypes of stroke.

Methods: A multicentre prospective observational study was performed in 5 Neurology departments in public hospitals in the Region of Madrid (Spain). The objective was to estimate the use of healthcare resources and costs of acute CS management. Patients with acute CS at<48h from onset were recruited. Patients' socio-demographic, clinical, and healthcare resource use data were collected during hospitalisation and at discharge up to 30 days after admission, including data for rehabilitation treatment after discharge.

Results: During an 8-month recruitment period, 128 patients were recruited: mean age, 75.3±11.25; 46.9% women; mortality rate, 4.7%. All patients met the CS diagnostic criteria established by GEENCV-SEN, based on medical history or diagnostic tests. Fifty per cent of the patients had a history of atrial fibrillation and 18.8% presented other major cardioembolic sources. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation was the most frequent cause of CS (33.6%). Data for healthcare resource use, given a mean total hospital stay of 10.3±9.3 days, are as follows: rehabilitation therapy during hospital stay (46.9%, mean 4.5 days) and after discharge (56.3%, mean 26.8 days), complications (32%), specific interventions (19.5%), and laboratory and diagnostic tests (100%). Head CT (98.4%), duplex ultrasound of supra-aortic trunks (87.5%), and electrocardiogram (85.9%) were the most frequently performed diagnostic procedures. Average total cost per patient during acute-phase management and rehabilitation was €13,139. Hospital stay (45.0%) and rehabilitation at discharge (29.2%) accounted for the largest part of resources used.

Conclusions: Acute CS management in the Region of Madrid resulted consumes large amounts of resources (€13,139), mainly due to hospital stays and rehabilitation.

Keywords: Cardioembolic stroke; Comunidad de Madrid; Costes; Costs; Ictus; Infarto cerebral cardioembólico; Region of Madrid (Spain); Resource use; Sanidad Pública; Spanish National Health System; Stroke; Utilización de recursos.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Atrial Fibrillation / complications
  • Embolism / complications*
  • Embolism / therapy
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / complications*
  • Heart Diseases / therapy
  • Hospital Costs
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rehabilitation / economics
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Stroke / economics*
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / therapy*