Sustained hepatic inflammation is an important factor in progression of chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis C or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Liver inflammation is regulated by chemokines, which regulate the migration and activities of hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells, and circulating immune cells. However, the effects of the different chemokines and their receptors vary during pathogenesis of different liver diseases. During development of chronic viral hepatitis, CCL5 and CXCL10 regulate the cytopathic versus antiviral immune responses of T cells and natural killer cells. During development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, CCL2 and its receptor are up-regulated in the liver, where they promote macrophage accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis, and steatosis, as well as in adipose tissue. CCL2 signaling thereby links hepatic and systemic inflammation related to metabolic disorders and insulin resistance. Several chemokine signaling pathways also promote hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies have shown that other chemokines and immune cells have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities. Chemokines and their receptors can also contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma, promoting proliferation of cancer cells, the inflammatory microenvironment of the tumor, evasion of the immune response, and angiogenesis. We review the roles of different chemokines in the pathogenesis of liver diseases and their potential use as biomarkers or therapeutic targets.
Keywords: HCV; Immune Regulation; Inflammatory Response; NASH.
Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.