Fronto-temporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (FTLD-TDP) is a fatal neurodegeneration. TMEM106B variants are linked to FTLD-TDP risk, and TMEM106B is lysosomal. Here, we focus on neuronal TMEM106B, and demonstrate co-localization and traffic with lysosomal LAMP-1. pH-sensitive reporters demonstrate that the TMEM106B C-terminus is lumenal. The TMEM106B N-terminus interacts with endosomal adaptors and other TMEM106 proteins. TMEM106B knockdown reduces neuronal lysosomal number and diameter by STED microscopy, and overexpression enlarges LAMP-positive structures. Reduction of TMEM106B increases axonally transported lysosomes, while TMEM106B elevation inhibits transport and yields large lysosomes in the soma. TMEM106B overexpression alters lysosomal stress signaling, causing a translocation of the mTOR-sensitive transcription factor, TFEB, to neuronal nuclei. TMEM106B loss-of-function delays TFEB translocation after Torin-1-induced stress. Enlarged TMEM106B-overexpressing lysosomes maintain organelle integrity longer after lysosomal photodamage than do control lysosomes, while small TMEM106B-knockdown lysosomes are more sensitive to illumination. Thus, neuronal TMEM106B plays a central role in regulating lysosomal size, motility and responsiveness to stress, highlighting the possible role of lysosomal biology in FTLD-TDP.
Keywords: Fronto-temporal dementia; Lysosome; Neurodegeneration; Progranulin; TDP-43; TFEB.
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