Identification of prognostic inflammatory factors in colorectal liver metastases

BMC Cancer. 2014 Jul 28:14:542. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-542.


Background: The modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) has been reported to be an important prognostic indicator in a number of tumor types, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The features of the inflammatory state thought to accompany elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), a key feature of mGPS, were characterized in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Additional inflammatory mediators that contribute to prognosis were explored.

Methods: In sera from 69 patients with colorectal liver metastases, a panel of 42 inflammatory mediators were quantified as a function of CRP levels, and as a function of disease-free survival. Multivariate statistical methods were used to determine association of each mediator with elevated CRP and truncated disease-free survival.

Results: Elevated CRP was confirmed to be a strong predictor of survival (HR 4.00, p = 0.001) and recurrence (HR 3.30, p = 0.002). The inflammatory state associated with elevated CRP was comprised of raised IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-15. In addition, elevated IL-8 and PDGF-AB/BB and decreased eotaxin and IP-10 were associated with worse disease-free and overall survival.

Conclusions: Elevated CRP is associated with a proinflammatory state. The inflammatory state is an important prognostic indicator in CRC liver metastases. The individual contributions of tumor biology and the host to this inflammatory response will require further investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Liver Neoplasms / immunology*
  • Liver Neoplasms / pathology
  • Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis


  • Inflammation Mediators
  • C-Reactive Protein