The use of intracardiac echocardiography during percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Jan;36(1):76-83. doi: 10.1007/s00246-014-0967-6. Epub 2014 Jul 29.


High-quality live imaging assessment of cardiac valves and cardiac anatomy is crucial for the success of catheter-based procedures. We present our experience using Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) during transcatheter Percutaneous Pulmonary Valve replacement (tPVR).This is a retrospective study that included 35 patients who underwent tPVR between April 2008 and June 2012. Thirty-one of these patients had the procedure performed under continuous ICE guidance. Pre-procedure transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was obtained in all patients. ICE was performed at baseline, during the procedure, and at the conclusion of the procedure. Comparisons between the pre-procedure TTE and baseline ICE data and between post-procedure ICE data and the following day TTE were performed. Total of 35 patients had tPVR during the above-mentioned time period. Twenty-one patients received the Edwards Sapien valve and 14 patients had the Melody valve. Thirty-one patients had the procedure performed under continuous ICE guidance. The mean Pre-TTE peak gradient (PG) and Pre-ICE-PG were 45.5 ± 20 vs 33 ± 13 mmHg (p < 0.001) and the mean Pre-TTE mean gradient (MG) and Pre-ICE-MG were 27.7 ± 13 vs 21 ± 18 mmHg (p < 0.001). The mean Post-TTE- PG and Post-ICE-PG were 24.3 ± 11 vs 15.3 ± 7 mmHg (p < 0.001) and the mean of the Post-TTE-MG and Post-ICE-MG were 14.2 ± 7 vs 8.4 ± 4 mmHg (p < 0.001). There was a good correlation between peak ICE and TTE gradient at baseline and after valve placement. For the degree of pulmonary regurgitation, there was no significant difference between TTE and ICE. ICE is an important modality to guide tPVR in patients with dysfunctional homograft valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery and should be used to assess valve function before, during and immediately after the procedure.

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization*
  • Echocardiography
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Female
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation / methods*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Pulmonary Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Valve / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency / surgery*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ultrasonography, Interventional*
  • Young Adult