Blood-based biomarker testing of insulin resistance (IR) and beta cell dysfunction may identify diabetes risk earlier than current glycemia-based approaches. This retrospective cohort study assessed 1,687 US patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) under routine clinical care with a comprehensive panel of 19 biomarkers and derived factors related to IR, beta cell function, and glycemic control. The mean age was 53 ± 15, 42 % were male, and 25 % had glycemic indicators consistent with prediabetes. An additional 45 % of the patients who had normal glycemic indicators were identified with IR or beta cell abnormalities. After 5.3 months of median follow-up, significantly more patients had improved than worsened their glycemic status in the prediabetic category (35 vs. 9 %; P < 0.0001) and in the "high normal" category (HbA1c values of 5.5-5.6; 56 vs. 18 %, p < 0.0001). Biomarker testing can identify IR early, enable and inform treatment, and improve glycemic control in a high proportion of patients.