The purpose of this paper is to provide a contemporary review of the correlation between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and hearing impairment (HI) . We conducted a comprehensive review of the literature in order to assess the effects of the different CVRFs on HI. We focused on the pathological findings in the inner ear and their correlation with cochlear function in population-based studies. We found that CVRFs adversely affect hearing acuity. HI diagnosis should be accompanied by detecting and treating CVRFs, according to the presented outline, which may augment hearing rehabilitation and improve the general health and the well-being of the patient. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.