Purpose: Coronin-1A deficiency is a recently recognized autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in CORO1A (OMIM 605000) that results in T-cell lymphopenia and is classified as T(-)B(+)NK(+)severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Only two other CORO1A-kindred are known to date, thus the defining characteristics are not well delineated. We identified a unique CORO1A-kindred.
Methods: We captured a 10-year analysis of the immune-clinical phenotypes in two affected siblings from disease debut of age 7 years. Target-specific genetic studies were pursued but unrevealing. Telomere lengths were also assessed. Whole exome sequencing (WES) uncovered the molecular diagnosis and Western blot validated findings.
Results: We found the compound heterozygous CORO1A variants: c.248_249delCT (p.P83RfsX10) and a novel mutation c.1077delC (p.Q360RfsX44) (NM_007074.3) in two affected non-consanguineous siblings that manifested as absent CD4CD45RA(+) (naïve) T and memory B cells, low NK cells and abnormally increased double-negative (DN) ϒδ T-cells. Distinguishing characteristics were late clinical debut with an unusual mucocutaneous syndrome of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-human papilloma virus (EV-HPV), molluscum contagiosum and oral-cutaneous herpetic ulcers; the older female sibling also had a disfiguring granulomatous tuberculoid leprosy. Both had bilateral bronchiectasis and the female died of EBV+ lymphomas at age 16 years. The younger surviving male, without malignancy, had reproducibly very short telomere lengths, not before appreciated in CORO1A mutations.
Conclusion: We reveal the third CORO1A-mutated kindred, with the immune phenotype of abnormal naïve CD4 and DN T-cells and newfound characteristics of a late/hypomorphic-like SCID of an EV-HPV mucocutaneous syndrome with also B and NK defects and shortened telomeres. Our findings contribute to the elucidation of the CORO1A-SCID-CID spectrum.