Hepatotoxicity associated with statin use: analysis of the cases included in the Spanish Hepatotoxicity Registry

Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2014 Apr;106(4):246-54.

Abstract

Objectives: The hepatotoxic potential of statins is controversial. The objectives of this study were to describe the relative frequency of hepatotoxicity caused by statins and the phenotypes found in Spain.

Patients and methods: The incidence of hepatotoxicity attributed to statins in the Spanish Hepatotoxicity Registry (REH) were studied and compared with those attributed to other drugs.

Results: Between April 1994 and August 2012, the REH included a total of 858 cases of which 47 (5.5 %) were attributed to statins. Of these, 16 were due to atorvastatin (34 %); 13 to simvastatin (27.7 %); 12 to fluvastatin (25.5 %); 4 to lovastatin (8.5 %) and 2 to pravastatin (4.3 %). Statins represented approximately half of the cardiovascular group which occupied 3rd place (10 %), after anti-infectious agents (37 %) and central nervous system drugs (14 %). The hepatocellular pattern was predominant, especially in the simvastatin group (85%), the cholestatic/mixed pattern was more frequent with fluvastatin (66 %) and had a similar distribution to atorvastatin. Patients with statin-induced toxicity were older (62 years versus 53 years, p < 0.001) and more often demonstrated anautoimmune hepatitis phenotype (8.5 % versus 1.4 %, p < 0.003).

Conclusions: Statins are not a common cause of hepatotoxicity in Spain. Atorvastatin is the statin involved in the greatest number of incidents. The liver injury pattern varies among the different statins. The hepatitis phenotype with autoimmune features appears to be a characteristic signature of statin-induced hepatotoxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Hepatitis, Autoimmune / epidemiology
  • Hepatitis, Autoimmune / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / adverse effects*
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Spain / epidemiology
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors