Background: The pharmacokinetic properties of the immediate-release (IR) and the recently developed controlled-release (CR) formulation of pregabalin are dose proportional. Pregabalin IR can be taken with or without food.
Objectives: This analysis characterizes the effect of food on pregabalin CR. The objectives of this analysis were: (1) to evaluate the effect of administration time and fat or caloric content of an accompanying meal on the pharmacokinetic properties of a single dose of pregabalin CR (330 mg) relative to a single dose of pregabalin IR (300 mg); (2) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of a single dose of pregabalin CR administered fasted relative to a single dose of pregabalin CR administered immediately after food; and (3) to determine the safety and tolerability of single-dose administration of pregabalin CR and IR with and without food.
Methods: The effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties of pregabalin CR was determined in five phase I, open-label, single-dose, crossover studies (24-28 participants/study). Caloric and fat content of meals were varied and treatments were administered in the morning, at midday, or in the evening. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h post-dose. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated from plasma concentration-time data using standard noncompartmental methods. Adverse events were monitored throughout all studies.
Results: One hundred and twenty-eight healthy participants (19-54 years of age) received pregabalin. Peak plasma concentrations (C max) were lower for CR than the respective pregabalin IR doses, and time to C max occurred later. When pregabalin CR was administered with food at midday or in the evening, total exposures [area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero extrapolated to infinite time (AUC∞)] were equivalent for pregabalin CR and IR formulations regardless of fat or caloric content. When pregabalin CR was administered with an 800-1,000 calorie medium-fat breakfast, AUC∞ was equivalent for pregabalin CR and IR. Bioequivalence criteria for comparison of pregabalin CR after a low- or medium-calorie breakfast relative to pregabalin IR were not met; however, bioavailability of the pregabalin CR vs. IR formulation was relatively high (75-86 %). When pregabalin CR was administered fasted, the AUC∞ was 70-78 % of the AUC∞ of pregabalin CR administered with food and bioequivalence criteria were not met. Additionally, the AUC∞ of the pregabalin CR formulation administered fasted was 62-69 % of that of pregabalin IR administered fasted and bioequivalence criteria were not met. Single-dose pregabalin CR and IR were well tolerated in all studies, with no serious or severe adverse events reported.
Conclusion: Time of day of administration and the fat and caloric content of the accompanying meal had minimal overall effect on the pharmacokinetic properties and bioavailability of the pregabalin CR formulation.