Background: The objective of the study is to compare complication rates of laparoscopic nephrectomy and open nephrectomy using a standardized classification method.
Methods: We retrospectively included 843 patients from March 2006 to November 2012, of whom 88 had laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), 526 had open radical nephrectomy (ORN), 42 had laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN), and 187 had open partial nephrectomy (OPN). A modified Clavien classification system was applied to quantify complications of nephrectomy. Fisher's exact or chi-square test were used to compare complication rates between laparoscopic and open approaches.
Results: The overall complication rate was 19.31%, 30.04%, 35.71%, and 36.36% in LRN, ORN, LPN, and OPN, respectively. More Grade II complications (odds ratio = 2.593, 95% CI 1.172 to 5.737, P = 0.010) and longer postoperation hospital stay (9.2 days and 7.6 days, P < 0.001) were observed in ORN compared with LRN. In multivariable analysis, surgical approach (LRN/ORN) (P = 0.036), age (P = 0.044), height (P = 0.020), systolic pressure (P = 0.012), fasting blood glucose level (P = 0.032), and blood loss during operation (P = 0.011) were significant predictors for grade II complications in radical nephrectomy. LPN had similar complication rates compared with OPN.
Conclusions: In conclusion, LRN had the advantages of less grade II complications and shorter postoperation hospital stay than ORN. Older age and more blood loss during operation would also contribute to more grade II complications in radical nephrectomy.