Objective: Monogenic diabetes (MD) is rare and can often be confused with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a pediatric cohort. We sought to determine clinical criteria that could optimally identify candidates for genetic testing of two common forms of MD that alter therapy: glucokinase (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1α).
Research design and methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 939 patients with a presumed diagnosis of T1D, 6 months-20 yr of age, and identified four clinical criteria that were unusual for T1D and could warrant further evaluation for MD: (i) negative pancreatic autoantibodies, (ii) evidence of prolonged endogenous insulin production, or (iii) strong family history of diabetes in multiple generations. One hundred and twenty-one patients were identified as having one or more of these high-risk clinical criteria and were offered screening for mutations in GCK and HNF1α; 58 consented for genetic testing.
Results: Of 58 patients with presumed T1D who underwent genetic testing, four were found to have GCK and one had HNF1α. No patients with only one high-risk feature were found to have MD. Of 10 patients who had two or more high risk criteria, five had MD (50%).
Conclusion: A high frequency of MD from mutations in GCK/HNF1α may be identified among pediatric diabetic patients originally considered to have T1D by performing genetic testing on those patients with multiple clinical risk factors for MD.
Keywords: MODY; diabetes mellitus type 1; genetic testing; pediatrics.
© 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.