Timing of mental health treatment and PTSD Symptom improvement among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans

Psychiatr Serv. 2014 Dec 1;65(12):1414-9. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201300453. Epub 2014 Oct 31.


Objective: This study examined demographic, military, temporal, and logistic variables associated with improvement of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who received mental health outpatient treatment from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. The authors sought to determine whether time between last deployment and initiating mental health treatment was associated with a lack of improvement in PTSD symptoms.

Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of existing medical records of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who enrolled in VA health care, received a postdeployment PTSD diagnosis, and initiated treatment for one or more mental health problems between October 1, 2007, and December 31, 2011, and whose records contained results of PTSD screening at the start of treatment and approximately one year later (N=39,690).

Results: At the start of treatment, 75% of veterans diagnosed as having PTSD had a positive PTSD screen. At follow-up, 27% of those with a positive screen at baseline had improved, and 43% of those with a negative screen at baseline remained negative. A negative PTSD screen at follow-up was associated with female gender, older age, white race, having never married, officer rank, non-Army service, closer proximity to the nearest VA facility, and earlier initiation of treatment after the end of the last deployment.

Conclusions: Interventions to reduce delays in initiating mental health treatment may improve veterans' treatment response. Further studies are needed to test interventions for particular veteran subgroups who were less likely than others to improve with treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Afghan Campaign 2001-
  • Comorbidity
  • Demography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iraq War, 2003-2011
  • Male
  • Mental Health
  • Military Psychiatry / methods
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Psychotherapy* / methods
  • Psychotherapy* / statistics & numerical data
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / diagnosis
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / etiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / psychology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic* / therapy
  • Time-to-Treatment
  • United States / epidemiology
  • United States Department of Veterans Affairs / statistics & numerical data
  • Veterans / psychology*