DL-/PO-phosphatidylcholine restores restraint stress-induced depression-related behaviors and spatial memory impairment

Behav Pharmacol. 2014 Sep;25(5-6):575-81. doi: 10.1097/FBP.0000000000000063.


The present study investigated the effects of 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DL-PC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PO-PC) on depression-related behaviors and spatial memory impairment in mice subjected to restraint stress. The immobility time in forced-swim and tail-suspension tests for mice subjected to restraint stress was significantly longer than that for nonstressed control mice, and oral coadministration of DL-PC and PO-PC (DL-/PO-PC; DL-PC : PO-PC=1 : 1) shortened the prolonged immobility time in a dose (0.1-5 mg/kg)-dependent manner. In the water maze test, the retention latency for stressed mice was significantly longer than that for control mice and DL-/PO-PC (1 mg/kg, per os) reversed the prolonged latency to control levels. Phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) in the hypothalamus of stressed mice was significantly reduced compared with that for control mice, and DL-/PO-PC (1 mg/kg, per os) recovered the reduced phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β. The results of the present study indicate that DL-/PO-PC has the potential to ameliorate stress-induced depression-related behaviors and memory impairment, possibly by activating Akt and inhibiting GSK-3β.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Depressive Disorder / drug therapy*
  • Depressive Disorder / physiopathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Hypothalamus / drug effects
  • Hypothalamus / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Maze Learning / drug effects
  • Maze Learning / physiology
  • Memory Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Memory Disorders / physiopathology
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Motor Activity / physiology
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Phosphatidylcholines / pharmacology*
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism
  • Psychotropic Drugs / pharmacology*
  • Restraint, Physical
  • Spatial Memory / drug effects*
  • Spatial Memory / physiology
  • Stress, Psychological / physiopathology


  • Phosphatidylcholines
  • Psychotropic Drugs
  • 1,2-linoleoylphosphatidylcholine
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta
  • Gsk3b protein, mouse
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
  • 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine