Physical and perceptual cooling with beverages to increase cycle performance in a tropical climate

PLoS One. 2014 Aug 1;9(8):e103718. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103718. eCollection 2014.


Purpose: This study compares the effects of neutral temperature, cold and ice-slush beverages, with and without 0.5% menthol on cycling performance, core temperature (Tco) and stress responses in a tropical climate (hot and humid conditions).

Methods: Twelve trained male cyclists/triathletes completed six 20-km exercise trials against the clock in 30.7°C±0.8°C and 78%±0.03% relative humidity. Before and after warm-up, and before exercise and every 5 km during exercise, athletes drank 190 mL of either aromatized (i.e., with 0.5 mL of menthol (5 gr/L)) or a non-aromatized beverage (neutral temperature: 23°C±0.1°C, cold: 3°C±0.1°C, or ice-slush: -1°C±0.7°C). During the trials, heart rate (HR) was continuously monitored, whereas core temperature (Tco), thermal comfort (TC), thermal sensation (TS) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured before and after warm-up, every 5 km of exercise, and at the end of exercise and after recovery.

Results: Both the beverage aroma (P<0.02) and beverage temperature (P<0.02) had significant and positive effects on performance, which was considerably better with ice-slush than with a neutral temperature beverage, whatever the aroma (P<0.002), and with menthol vs non-menthol (P<0.02). The best performances were obtained with ice-slush/menthol and cold/menthol, as opposed to neutral/menthol. No differences were noted in HR and Tco between trials.

Conclusion: Cold water or ice-slush with menthol aroma seems to be the most effective beverage for endurance exercise in a tropical climate. Further studies are needed to explore its effects in field competition.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Beverages*
  • Body Temperature / physiology
  • Body Temperature Regulation / physiology
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Tropical Climate*

Grants and funding

The authors have no support or funding to report.