B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were demonstrated in several haematological diseases including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Those cytokines are capable of activating a broad spectrum of intracellular signalling cascades that can either induce apoptosis or protect from programmed cell death. We have analysed BAFF, APRIL and TRAIL serum concentrations in 76 patients with newly diagnosed AML and 40 healthy volunteers. The values were significantly higher for APRIL and BAFF but lower for TRAIL compared to healthy volunteers. Induction therapy significantly reduced the values for BAFF and increased them for TRAIL. Moreover, the concentration of BAFF and APRIL was significantly lower and the concentration of TRAIL higher in a group of patients with complete remission compared to non-respondent AML patients. In addition, higher concentrations of BAFF and lower of TRAIL predicted a shorter overall survival, suggesting thereby an important prognostic marker and possible therapeutic target in AML.