Comparison of urinary oxidative biomarkers in Iranian children with autism

Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Nov;35(11):2751-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.07.010. Epub 2014 Aug 2.


Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder usually presents in early childhood and thought to be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Individuals with autism vary widely in abilities, intelligence, and behaviors. It is common for children with autism to exhibit eating disorders and some have preferences for soft and sweetened food making them susceptible to caries. Furthermore, a wide spectrum of medical and behavioral symptoms exhibited by children with autism makes routine dental care very difficult. Intellectual disability is evident in approximately 70% of individuals with autism and most psychiatric disorders, including autism, are associated with increased oxidative stress. 29 subjects diagnosed with autism, in the age group of 6 to 12 years, were a part of the study. Furturemore, 24 normal healthy siblings of same age group were taken as the control group. The present study aimed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers such as urinary total antioxidant concentration (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and total thiol molecules (TTM). The results showed the autism group have significantly higher CAT activity and concomitant lower TAC and TTM concentration in comparison with control group. The results are discussed in relation to an increased vulnerability to oxidative damage, which may contribute to the development and clinical manifestation of symptoms of autism.

Keywords: Autistic disorder; Oxidative stress; Total antioxidant capacity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Autistic Disorder / enzymology
  • Autistic Disorder / urine*
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Catalase / metabolism*
  • Child
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Siblings
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / urine*


  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • Catalase